# Erle Robotics C++ GitBook

## Passing by reference

References are perfectly valid types, just like pointers. For instance, just like int * is the “pointer to an integer” type, int & is the “reference to an integer” type. References can be passed as arguments to functions, returned from functions, and otherwise manipulated just like any other type.

References are just pointers internally; when you declare a reference variable, a pointer to the value being referenced is created, and it’s just dereferenced each time the reference variable is used.

The syntax for setting a reference variable to become an alias for another variable is just like regular assignment:

 int &x = y; // x and y are now two names for the same variable


Similarly, when we want to pass arguments to a function using references, we just call the function with the arguments as usual, and put the & in the function definiton, where the argument variables are being set to the arguments actually passed:

 void sq( int &x) { // & is part of the type of x
// - x is an int reference
x *= x;
}
sq(y);


Note that on the last line, where we specify what variable x will be a reference to, we just write the name of that variable; we don’t need to take an address with & here. References can also be returned from functions, as in this contrived example:

int g; // Global variable
int & getG () { // Return type is int reference
return g; // As before , the value we ’re making a
// reference *to* doesn ’t get an & in front of it
}

// ... Somewhere in main
int & gRef = getG (); // gRef is now an alias for g
gRef = 7; // Modifies g


If you’re writing a class method that needs to return some internal object, it’s often best to return it by reference, since that avoids copying over the entire object. You could also then use your method to do something like:

vector <Card > & cardList= deck . getList (); // getList declared to return a reference
cardList . pop_back ();


The second line here modifies the original list in deck, because cardList was declared as a reference and getList returns a reference.